The following is a short list of highlights of Sling:
The following sections elaborate on each of these highlights.
OSGi is a consortium that has developed a specification to build modular and extensible applications. This offers various benefits. We deal mainly with two parts of the specifications: The Core Specification, which defines the OSGi Framework and Core Services, and the Compendium Services Specification, which defines a host of services that extend the functionality of the OSGi Framework.
The OSGi Framework is made up of three layers – Module, Lifecycle, and Services – that define how extensible applications are built and deployed. The responsibilities of the layers are:
Export-Packageand what a bundle requires to be operative
BundleActivatorinterface and which is named in the
Bundle-Activatormanifest header, a bundle may hook into the lifecycle process when the bundle is started and stopped.
Based on the OSGi Framework specification, the Compendium Services specification defines a (growing) number of extension services, which may be used by applications for various tasks. Of these Compendium Services, Sling is using just a small number:
The Sling API is an extension to the Servlet API which provides more functionality to interact with the Sling framework and also to extend Sling itself and to implement Sling applications.
Traditional Web Application framework emply more or less elaborate methods to select a Servlet or Controller based on the request URL, which in turn tries to load some data (usually from a database) to act upon and finally to render the result somehow.
Sling turns this processing around in that it places the data to act upon at the center and consequently uses the request URL to first resolve the data to process. This data is internally represented as an instance of the
Resource interface. Based on this resource as well as the request method and more properties of the request URL a script or servlet is then selected to handle the request.
See the Servlets page for more information.
The Resource is one of the central parts of Sling. Extending from JCR's Everything is Content, Sling assumes Everthing is a Resource. Thus Sling is maintaining a virtual tree of resources, which is a merger of the actual contents in the JCR Repository and resources provided by so called resource providers.
Each resource has a path by which it is addressed in the resource tree, a resource type and some resource metadata (such as file size, last modification time). It is important to understand, that a
Resource instance actually is only a handle to the actual data. By virtue of the
adaptTo(Class<Type>) method, a resource may be coerced into another data type, which may then be used while processing the request. Examples of data types are
See the Resources page for more information.
Scripts are usually provided as content in a JCR repository. But since Sling is using a resource tree, a script actually is represented as a Resource and may be provided from within a Bundle (by virtue of the bundle resource provider) or even from the platform file system (by virtue of the file system resource provider).
Accessing scripts in the resource tree, allows for a very easy to understand mapping from resource type to some script path.
Having found the script resource, we still need access to the appropriate script language implementation to evaluate the script. To this avail, Sling is making use of the
Resource.adaptTo(Class<Type>) method: If a script language implementation is available for the extension of the script name an adaptor for the script resource can be found, which handles the evaluation of the script.
Besides scripting languages, such as ECMAScript, Groovy, JSP, Sling also supports regular servlets. To be able to use servlets for request processing, such servlets must be registered as OSGi services for the
javax.servlet.Servlet interface and provide a number of service registration properties, which are used to use the servlets. In fact servlets thus registered as OSGi services are mapped into the resource tree by means of a servlet resource provider. This resource provider mapps the servlets into the resource tree using the service registration properties to build one or more resource paths for the servlet.
As a result of mapping servlets into the resource tree and the possibility to adapt resource to an adaptor data type, scripts and servlets may be handled completely transparently: The servlet resolver just looks for a resource matching the resource type and adapts the resource found to
javax.jcr.Servlet. If the resource happens to be provided by a servlet resource provider, the adapter is of course the servlet itself. If the resource happens to be a script, the adapter is a servlet facade which internally calls the script language implementation to evaluate the script.
See the Servlet Resolution page for more information.
Sling may be launched as a standalone application using the Sling Application or as a Web Application running inside any Servlet API 2.4 or newer Servlet Container.
The Sling Application is a standalone Java Application which is really small: Just the main class and some glue classes. The OSGi framework as well as the OSGi API libraries are packaged as a JAR file, which is loaded through a custom classloader. This enables to update the framework and/or OSGi API libraries from within Sling by updating the system bundle.
The Sling Servlet is equally small as the Sling Application. It uses the Felix
HttpService bridge as the glue between the servlet container and the OSGi framework.
As we have seen, Sling may be launched as a standalone Java Application or as a Web Application inside any compliant Servlet Container. To hide the differences of the launching mechanism, Sling internally registers a Servlet with an OSGi
HttpService. Regardless of how Sling is launched, the Felix implementation of the OSGi
HttpService specification is used. When Sling is launched as a standalone Java Application, Felix HttpService uses an embedded version of the Jetty servlet container. When Sling is launched as a Web Application, the Felix HttpService Bridge is used.
Optionally, PAX Web's implementation of HttpService can be used when Sling is launched as a standalone Java Application. See the Maven Launchpad Plugin page for information on how to do this.
See The Sling Launchpad for more information.