Apache

Sling Mocks

Mock implementation of selected Sling APIs for easier testing.

Maven Dependency

For JUnit 5:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.sling</groupId>
  <artifactId>org.apache.sling.testing.sling-mock.junit5</artifactId>
</dependency>

For JUnit 4:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.sling</groupId>
  <artifactId>org.apache.sling.testing.sling-mock.junit4</artifactId>
</dependency>

See latest version on the downloads page.

There are two major version ranges available:

  • sling-mock 1.x: compatible with older Sling versions from 2014 (Sling API 2.4 and above), JUnit 4
  • sling-mock 2.x: compatible with Sling versions from 2016 (Sling API 2.11 and above), JUnit 4 and JUnit 5

Implemented mock features

The mock implementation supports:

  • ResourceResolver implementation for reading and writing resource data using the Sling Resource API
  • AdapterManager implementation for registering adapter factories and resolving adaptions
    • The implementation is thread-safe so it can be used in parallel running unit tests
  • SlingScriptHelper implementation providing access to mocked request/response objects and supports getting OSGi services from the mocked OSGi environment.
  • Implementations of the servlet-related Sling API classes like SlingHttpServletRequest and SlingHttpServletRequest
    • It is possible to set request data to simulate a certain Sling HTTP request
  • Support for Sling Models (Sling Models API 1.1 and Impl 1.1 or higher required), all relevant Sling Models services are registered by default
  • Additional services: MimeTypeService
  • Context Plugins

The following features are not supported:

  • It is not possible (nor intended) to really execute sling components/scripts and render their results.
    • The goal is to test supporting classes in Sling context, not the sling components/scripts themselves

Additional features

Additional features provided:

  • SlingContext JUnit Rule for easily setting up a Sling Mock environment in your JUnit test cases
  • ContentLoader supports importing JSON data and binary data into the mock resource hierarchy to easily prepare a test fixture consisting of a hierarchy of resources and properties.
    • The same JSON format can be used that is provided by the Sling GET servlet for output
  • ContentBuilder and ResourceBuilder make it easier to create resources and properties as test fixture

Usage

The SlingContext object provides access to mock implementations of:

  • OSGi Component Context
  • OSGi Bundle Context
  • Sling Resource Resolver
  • Sling Request
  • Sling Response
  • Sling Script Helper

Additionally it supports:

  • Registering OSGi services
  • Registering adapter factories
  • Accessing ContentLoader, and ContentBuilder and ResourceBuilder

JUnit 5: Sling Context JUnit Extension

The Sling mock context can be injected into a JUnit test using a custom JUnit extension named SlingContextExtension. This extension takes care of all initialization and cleanup tasks required to make sure all unit tests can run independently (and in parallel, if required).

Example:

@ExtendWith(SlingContextExtension.class)
public class ExampleTest {

  private final SlingContext context = new SlingContext();

  @Test
  public void testSomething() {
    Resource resource = context.resourceResolver().getResource("/content/sample/en");
    // further testing
  }

}

It is possible to combine such a unit test with a @ExtendWith annotation e.g. for Mockito JUnit Jupiter Extension.

JUnit 4: Sling Context JUnit Rule

The Sling mock context can be injected into a JUnit test using a custom JUnit rule named SlingContext. This rule takes care of all initialization and cleanup tasks required to make sure all unit tests can run independently (and in parallel, if required).

Example:

public class ExampleTest {

  @Rule
  public final SlingContext context = new SlingContext();

  @Test
  public void testSomething() {
    Resource resource = context.resourceResolver().getResource("/content/sample/en");
    // further testing
  }

}

It is possible to combine such a unit test with a @RunWith annotation e.g. for Mockito JUnit Runner.

Choosing Resource Resolver Mock Type

The Sling mock context supports different resource resolver types. Example:

public final SlingContext context = new SlingContext(ResourceResolverType.RESOURCERESOLVER_MOCK);

Different resource resolver mock types are supported with pros and cons, see next chapter for details.

Resource Resolver Types

The Sling Mocks resource resolver implementation supports different "types" of adapters for the mocks. Depending on the type an underlying JCR repository is used or not, and the data is stored in-memory or in a real repository.

Resource resolver types currently supported:

RESOURCERESOLVER_MOCK (default)

  • Simulates an In-Memory resource tree, does not provide adaptions to JCR API.
  • Based on the Sling resourceresolver-mock implementation implementation
  • You can use it to make sure the code you want to test does not contain references to JCR API.
  • Behaves slightly different from JCR resource mapping e.g. handling binary and date values.
  • This resource resolver type is very fast because data is stored in memory and no JCR mapping is applied.

JCR_MOCK

NONE

  • Uses the productive Sling resource factory implementation without any ResourceProvider. You have to register one yourself to do anything useful with it.
  • The performance of this resource resolver type depends on the resource provider registered.
  • This is useful if you want to test your own resource provides mapped to root without any JCR.

JCR_OAK

  • Uses a real JCR Jackrabbit Oak implementation based on the MemoryNodeStore
  • Full JCR/Sling features supported e.g. observations manager, transactions, versioning
  • Uses the productive Sling JCR resource provider implementation internally to do the Resource-JCR mapping
  • Takes some seconds for startup on the first access
  • Node types defined in OSGi bundle header 'Sling-Nodetypes' found in MANIFEST.MF files in the classpath are registered automatically.
  • Lucene indexing is not included, thus fulltext search queries will return no result

To use this type you have to declare an additional dependency in your test project:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.sling</groupId>
  <artifactId>org.apache.sling.testing.sling-mock-oak</artifactId>
  <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

See latest version on the downloads page.

JCR_JACKRABBIT

  • Uses a real JCR Jackrabbit implementation (not Oak) as provided by sling/commons/testing
  • Full JCR/Sling features supported e.g. observations manager, transactions, versioning
  • Uses the productive Sling JCR resource provider implementation internally to do the Resource-JCR mapping
  • Takes some seconds for startup on the first access
  • Node types defined in OSGi bundle header 'Sling-Nodetypes' found in MANIFEST.MF files in the classpath are registered automatically.

To use this type you have to declare an additional dependency in your test project:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.sling</groupId>
  <artifactId>org.apache.sling.testing.sling-mock-jackrabbit</artifactId>
  <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

See latest version on the downloads page.

Remarks on the JCR_JACKRABBIT type:

  • The repository is not cleared for each unit test, so make sure to use a unique node path for each unit test. You may use the uniquePath() helper object of the SlingContext rule for this.
  • The sling/commons/testing dependency introduces a lot of further dependencies from jackrabbit and others, be careful that they do not conflict and are imported in the right order in your test project

Sling Resource Resolver

Example:

// get a resource resolver
ResourceResolver resolver = MockSling.newResourceResolver();

// get a resource resolver backed by a specific repository type
ResourceResolver resolver = MockSling.newResourceResolver(ResourceResolverType.JCR_MOCK);

If you use the SlingContext JUnit rule you case just use context.resourceResolver().

Sling Models

You should use the following approach to test Sling Models.

Model Registration

First you need to make sure that the model you want to test is registered. Since Sling Mocks 1.9.0/2.2.0 the Sling Models from the classpath are automatically registered (SLING-6363) when the Manifest contains the right bundle headers (Sling-Model-Packages or Sling-Model-Classes). This behaviour can be tweaked since version 2.2.20 with the SlingContextBuilder.registerSlingModelsFromClassPath(false) method (SLING-7712).

Manual registration is supported via SlingContext.addModelsForPackage(...) and SlingContext.addModelsForClasses(...).

Model Instantiation

Preferably use the ModelFactory.createModel(...) method rather than the adaptTo method to benefit from better error messages in case of errors.

// load some content into the mocked repo
context.load().json(..., "/resource1");

// load resource
Resource myResource = content.resourceResolver().getResource("/resource1");

// instantiate Sling Model (adaptable via Resource)
// this will throw exceptions if model cannot be instantiated
MyModel myModel = context.getService(ModelFactory.class).createModel(myResource, MyModel.class);

Adapter Factories

You can register your own or existing adapter factories to support adaptions e.g. for classes extending SlingAdaptable.

Example:

// register adapter factory
BundleContext bundleContext = MockOsgi.newBundleContext();
MockSling.setAdapterManagerBundleContext(bundleContext);
bundleContext.registerService(myAdapterFactory);

// test adaption
MyClass object = resource.adaptTo(MyClass.class);

// cleanup after unit test
MockSling.clearAdapterManagerBundleContext();

Make sure you clean up the adapter manager bundle association after running the unit test otherwise it can interfere with the following tests. If you use the SlingContext JUnit rule this is done automatically for you.

If you use the SlingContext JUnit rule you case just use context.registerService().

SlingScriptHelper

Example:

// get script helper
SlingScriptHelper scriptHelper = MockSling.newSlingScriptHelper();

// get request
SlingHttpServletRequest request = scriptHelper.getRequest();

// get service
MyService object = scriptHelper.getService(MyService.class);

To support getting OSGi services you have to register them via the BundleContext interface of the JCR Mocks before. You can use an alternative factory method for the SlingScriptHelper providing existing instances of request, response and bundle context.

If you use the SlingContext JUnit rule you case just use context.slingScriptHelper().

SlingHttpServletRequest

Example for preparing a sling request with custom request data:

// prepare sling request
ResourceResolver resourceResolver = MockSling.newResourceResolver();
MockSlingHttpServletRequest request = new MockSlingHttpServletRequest(resourceResolver);

// simulate query string
request.setQueryString("param1=aaa&param2=bbb");

// alternative - set query parameters as map
request.setParameterMap(ImmutableMap.<String,Object>builder()
    .put("param1", "aaa")
    .put("param2", "bbb")
    .build());

// set current resource
request.setResource(resourceResolver.getResource("/content/sample"));

// set sling request path info properties
MockRequestPathInfo requestPathInfo = (MockRequestPathInfo)request.getRequestPathInfo();
requestPathInfo.setSelectorString("selector1.selector2");
requestPathInfo.setExtension("html");

// set method
request.setMethod(HttpConstants.METHOD_POST);

// set attributes
request.setAttribute("attr1", "value1");

// set headers
request.addHeader("header1", "value1");

// set cookies
request.addCookie(new Cookie("cookie1", "value1"));

SlingHttpServletResponse

Example for preparing a sling response which can collect the data that was written to it:

// prepare sling response
MockSlingHttpServletResponse response = new MockSlingHttpServletResponse();

// execute your unit test code that writes to the response...

// validate status code
assertEquals(HttpServletResponse.SC_OK, response.getStatus());

// validate content type and content length
assertEquals("text/plain;charset=UTF-8", response.getContentType());
assertEquals(CharEncoding.UTF_8, response.getCharacterEncoding());
assertEquals(55, response.getContentLength());

// validate headers
assertTrue(response.containsHeader("header1"));
assertEquals("5", response.getHeader("header2"));

// validate response body as string
assertEquals(TEST_CONTENT, response.getOutputAsString());

// validate response body as binary data
assertArrayEquals(TEST_DATA, response.getOutput());

Import resource data from JSON file in classpath

With the ContentLoader it is possible to import structured resource and property data from a JSON file stored in the classpath beneath the unit tests. This data can be used as text fixture for unit tests.

Example JSON data:

{
  "jcr:primaryType": "app:Page",
  "jcr:content": {
    "jcr:primaryType": "app:PageContent",
    "jcr:title": "English",
    "app:template": "/apps/sample/templates/homepage",
    "sling:resourceType": "sample/components/homepage",
    "jcr:createdBy": "admin",
    "jcr:created": "Thu Aug 07 2014 16:32:59 GMT+0200",
    "par": {
      "jcr:primaryType": "nt:unstructured",
      "sling:resourceType": "foundation/components/parsys",
      "colctrl": {
        "jcr:primaryType": "nt:unstructured",
        "layout": "2;colctrl-lt0",
        "sling:resourceType": "foundation/components/parsys/colctrl"
      }
    }
  }
}

Example code to import the JSON data:

context.load().json("/sample-data.json", "/content/sample/en");

This codes creates a new resource at /content/sample/en (and - if not existent - the parent resources) and imports the JSON data to this node. It can be accessed using the Sling Resource or JCR API afterwards.

Import binary data from file in classpath

With the ContentLoader it is possible to import a binary file stored in the classpath beneath the unit tests. The data is stored using a nt:file/nt:resource or nt:resource node type.

Example code to import a binary file:

context.load().binaryFile("/sample-file.gif", "/content/binary/sample-file.gif");

This codes creates a new resource at /content/binary/sample-file.gif (and - if not existent - the parent resources) and imports the binary data to a jcr:content subnode.

Building content

Sling Mocks provides two alterantives for quickly building test content in the repository with as few code as possible. Sling Mocks provides two alternatives. Both are quite similar in their results, but follow different API concepts. You can choose whatever matches your needs and mix them as well.

  • ContentBuilder: Part of Sling Mocks since its first release. If you need a references to each created resource this is the easiest way.
  • ResourceBuilder: Separate bundle that can also be used in integration tests or live instances. Supports a "fluent" API to create a bunch of resources in hierarchy at once.

Building content using ContentBuilder

The entry point for the ContentBuilder is the create() method on the Sling context.

Example:

context.create().resource("/content/test1", ImmutableMap.<String, Object>builder()
        .put("prop1", "value1")
        .put("prop2", "value2")
        .build());

Simplified syntax without using a map:

context.create().resource("/content/test1",
        "prop1", "value1",
        "prop2", "value2");

If you use the SlingContext JUnit rule you case just use context.create().

Building content using ResourceBuilder

The entry point for the ResourceBuilder is the build() method on the Sling context.

Example:

context.build().resource("/content/test1")
        .siblingsMode()
        .resource("test1.1", "stringParam", "configValue1.1")
        .resource("test1.2", "stringParam", "configValue1.2")
        .resource("test1.2", "stringParam", "configValue1.3");

See JavaDocs of the class org.apache.sling.resourcebuilder.api.ResourceBuilder for a detailed documentation.

Context Plugins

Sling Mocks supports "Context Plugins" that hook into the lifecycle of each test run and can prepare test setup before or after the other setUp actions, and execute test tear down code before or after the other tearDown action.

To define a plugin implement the org.apache.sling.testing.mock.osgi.context.ContextPlugin<SlingContextImpl> interface. For convenience it is recommended to extend the abstract class org.apache.sling.testing.mock.osgi.context.AbstractContextPlugin<SlingContextImpl>. These plugins can be used with Sling Mock context, but also with context instances deriving from it like AEM Mocks. In most cases you would just override the afterSetUp method. In this method you can register additional OSGi services or do other preparation work. It is recommended to define a constant pointing to a singleton of a plugin instance for using it.

To use a plugin in your unit test class, use the SlingContextBuilder class instead of directly instantiating the SlingContextclass. This allows you in a fluent style to configure more options, with the plugin(...) method you can add one or more plugins.

Example:

SlingContext context = new SlingContextBuilder().plugin(MY_PLUGIN).build();

More examples: